Land & Climate

INTRODUCTION :
The entire Cachar district is surrounded on three sides by the hill ranges of Manipur, Mizoram & Meghalaya. The district is characterized by undulating topography with rugged hill terrains in between and vast plain low lands. The general elevation of the land surface ranges from 450 M to 1100.

LOCATION:
The district of Cachar is the southernmost district of the state of Assam. It occupies an unique place in the state of Assam having boundary with two states namely Manipur & Mizoram & an international boundary spreading across the Barak Valley region with Bangladesh. It is bounded on the North by the Hills of North Cachar Hills district & Jaintia hills district of Megalaya state – the two hill districts separating Cachar from the Brahmaputra Valley & Meghalaya state. On the east it is flanked by the state of Manipur, while the state of Mizoram constitutes its southern border. The district shares the boundary on the west with the district of Hailakandi and Bangladesh border. This district is situated between longitude 92024’ East and 93015’ East and latitudes 24022’ North and 2508’ North. The present geographical area of Cachar district is 3786 sq.km. with 14,44,921 population according to 2001 census.
KEY INDICATORS :

Sl. No.
Particulars
Qnty.
1
Total Area (in sq. km.)
3,786
2
Sub-division (No.)
3
Revenue Circle (No.)
4
CD Block (No.)
15
5
Total Villages (No.)
1104
6
Inhabited Villages (No.)
53
7
Towns (No.)
8
Gaon Panchayats (No.)
163
9
Anchalik Panchayat (No.)
15
10
Urban Local Body (No.)
11
Gross District Domestic Product (Rs. Lakh at factor cost, 2003-04)
12
Per Capita District Domestic Product (Rs. at factor cost, 2003-04)

( * ) Statistical Handbook of Assam, 2008

 

LAND USE:
Although a number of industrial units have come up in the district over the years, the land use and land utilisation pattern of the district is still marked by preponderance of agriculture.

Sl. No.
Particulars
Qnty. (Ha.)
1
Total geographical area
378600
2
Current fellow land
6073
3
Forest land
136093
4
Pasture land
2600
5
Barren and waste land
41701
6
Area under non agriculture
48934
7
Culturable waste land
2037
8
Cultivable area
146219
9
Area under tea
10
Area under other plantation
11
Area under cultivation

( * ) Status Report, District Agricultural Department, 2002

CLIMATE:
The district falls under sub Himalayan region zone II & subsequently sub-regionalized under Barak Valley zone. Main features of weather during four seasons in a year have been described by IMD as follows;
   i)   Winter (Dec – Feb) occasional rain associated with western disturbances is an important phenomenon with morning fog.
   ii)   Hot weather season (March to May) temperature during the season is not so high due to cloudiness & pre-monsoon rain.  Weather is very humid & uncomfortable.
   iii)   Monsoon season (June – Sept) southwest monsoons relatively cool & humid.
   iv)   Post Monsoon season (Oct – Nov) though rainfall occurs during the early part of the season fog also occurs. Night temperature gradually falls with reduced rate of humidity.
 

FOREST :
Total forest coverage in the district including social forestry is 143576 Ha, which is 37.92% of the total geographical area of the district. The management & maintenance of forest is being done by different divisions of forest department. Reserved forest area is 83885 Ha & protected area network is 32625 Ha. District wise target of social forestry & achievement (2002-2003) is 100 Ha. No. of seedling planted during the year is 250000000. Number of scheduled caste component plan of social forestry implemented as 1097 in 2002-2003 & onwards. Per capita forest area is 0.09 Ha.


SOIL :
The physical analysis of soil in Cachar district indicates presence of thick clay deposits of gray colour. There are five ecological situation prevailing in the region are like (a) Beel & Hawar situation (wet land), (b) Alluvial flood prone situation, (c) Plantation crop grown situation, (d) Alluvial flood free situation, (e) Hills and forest situation.The district has different soil textures namely salty-clay-loam, sandy-clay-loam & clay.


 AGRICULTURE:
synoptic view of agricultural scenario of the district

Sl. No.
Particulars Qnty. (Ha.)
1
Total geographical area (ha) 378600.00
2
Cultivable area (ha)
3
Net cropped area (ha)
4
Gross cropped area (ha) 146219.00
5
Cropping intensity (%)
6
Net irrigated area (ha)
7
Gross irrigated area (ha)
8
Average Paddy Productivity (MT/ha)
9
Autumn paddy
10
Winter paddy
11
Summer paddy
12
Total Operational Holding
13
Landless farmers (less than 0.4 ha) (Nos)
14
Marginal farmers (0.4 to 1.0 ha) (Nos)
15
Small farmers (1.0 to 2 ha) (Nos)
16
Medium farmers (2 to 3 ha) (Nos)
17
Large farmers (more than 3 ha) (Nos)

 

 

 

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